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        淺談澳大利亞對散貨船的驗艙

        時間:2018/5/6 8:10:26 點擊:

          內容提示:澳大利亞,地廣人稀,物產豐富,是個資源豐富的國家,單就礦產來說,主要是有各種精礦,COPPER CONCENTRATES,還有ALUMINA,谷物(WHEAT, CORN,MAIZE, OATS, RYE, BARLEY, RICE, PULSE, SEEDS 以及其加工后的商品),東西北澳都有。去...
        澳大利亞,地廣人稀,物產豐富,是個資源豐富的國家,單就礦產來說,主要是有各種精礦,COPPER CONCENTRATES, LEAD CONCENTRATES(此種貨物比較簡單,下面基本不說); 還有ALUMINA,谷物(WHEAT, CORN,MAIZE, OATS, RYE, BARLEY, RICE, PULSE, SEEDS 以及其加工后的商品),東西北澳都有。
        對去澳洲裝載此類貨物的船,都有很高的要求。

        下面為澳洲主要港口地圖:
        淺談澳大利亞對散貨船的驗艙


        一、法律依據
        在澳洲關于船舶貨倉的主要法律和部門,我們結合下面幾個名詞解釋來談談:
        1.AQIS ( Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service )
        澳洲檢驗檢疫局,類似于我們的檢驗檢疫部門,公務員,不要求有航海的背景,有小姑娘,老大媽等。記住,千萬不要試圖賄賂AQIS的檢驗員,賄賂公務員,有可能要入獄。
        2.DAFF
        Dept of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Bio-security,這是AQIS下面的一個部門,負責對船舶以及飛機等的檢驗。

        DAFF requirements
        (Cleanliness and non Contamination)
        All the packages will have to be very very carefully inspected prior loading for any contamination (dust, dirt, all wooden material must be with visible fumigation / heat treatment / pest control markings etc.)
        1.Dirt, dust, bugs, insects, fungus, mold formation on wood
        2.Any folds in tarpaulins must be reported, as this can result in water pocketing, bugs, insect larvae, eggs etc.
        3.All wood must have ISPM 15 treatment marks.
        4.Rust on any steel objects.
        5.All steel items used – staples, nails etc must be of STAINLESS steel.
        6.Any loose stickers / markings must be reported.
        7.Others

        In order to meet stringent Dept of Agriculture, Fisheries and Forestry, Biosecurity (DAFF Biosecurity – formerly AQIS) standards in Australia, Carrier is to ensure stevedores working in the holds clean their shoes prior to boarding the vsl (wet mat at gangway).

        To avoid sawdust in the holds and or on cargo, Carrier is to ensure that stevedores at load ports cut dunnage on deck or ashore and pass all dunnage into the holds.
        All personnel onboard vsl are nor permitted to bring food into or eat in the holds during loading/discharging ops and all holds will be inspected in Aussie for and cleaned of all leftover food items prior arrival Australia. Carrier will keep all holds clean.

        Dunnage and lashing materials will be removed from all cargo prior to cargo being discharged.

        Dunnage will be kept onboard and disposed of at the next discharge port not in Aussie. Passing hold cleanliness inspection and obtaining a certificate of cleanliness at load port does not alleviate carrier of liability for all time and expenses incurred to rectify causes should vsl fail DAFF Biosecurity inspection at discharge port(s).
        大家仔細看這段文章,要求很嚴格,這是對所有船舶都是這樣要求的,即使客輪。
        所以,如果檢驗員在甲板上看到樹皮,木屑,食物,泥土等,都可以嚴重到讓你到錨地熏蒸。
        3.EXPORT CONTROL ACT (1982)
        這部法律是所有操作的依據。
        4.SURVEYOR:
        檢驗員分兩種,一種是AQIS檢驗員,根據上面所說,沒有海事背景,是公務員。另一種是MARINE SURVEYOR (MARINE UNDERWRITER SURVEYOR )。
        The role of the MUS is to verify that the vessel is fit for the purpose of carrying bulk grain. This is done by inspecting the cargo-hold cleanliness and ship-based contaminants
        such as moisture, odours, rust scale, grease or oil stains and previous cargo residues. Holds must be watertight and have a bilge pumping system in working order.
        The entire hold is inspected, including horizontal and vertical surfaces, behind ladders, manhole covers, beams and bulkheads. Once the MUS is satisfied that the hold meets relevant requirements, a ‘Certificate of Approval to load Grain in Bulk’ will be issued.

        接下來是根據法律對MUS的要求,注意,很嚴格:
        Export Control (Plants and Plant Products) Order 2011
        Export Control (Orders) Regulations 1982 AUSTRALIA
        Part 9 Exporting in bulk vessels Division 1 Surveys of bulk vessels
        32 Arrangements for bulk vessel to be surveyed before loading
        The shipowner or shipowner’s agent must provide an authorised officer with a declaration, approved by the exporter of the goods, that a named marine surveyor has, or surveyors have, been appointed to survey the vessel.
        33 Obligations of marine surveyor
        33.1 A marine surveyor appointed under section 32 must survey the bulk vessel with a view establishing whether the vessel is suitable to carry the prescribed goods in the holds or areas of the vessel proposed.
        33.2 If the marine surveyor is satisfied that the vessel:
        (a) is free of conditions that could result in contaminating, wetting or imparting an odour to goods; and (b) is a suitable vessel to carry the goods in the areas proposed; the marine surveyor may issue a certificate to that effect, and if it is in paper form, give the certificate and a copy to the master of the vessel. 
         33.3 The marine surveyor must not issue a certificate if he or she is not so satisfied.
        Level 4 penal provision Schedule 1 Marine surveyors’qualifications
        (definition of marine surveyor in section 5) 1 Marine surveyors' qualifications
        1.1 A marine surveyor becomes qualified for the purposes of this Order if he or she:
        (a) holds either:
        (i) a Certificate of Competency as Master Class 1 (Unrestricted) or its current equivalent; or (ii) a Diploma in Marine Surveying which includes a module on dry bulk cargoes issued by a nationally accredited training establishment; and
        (b) has inspected at least 10 bulk vessels, while in the company of a qualified marine
        surveyor conducting a survey for suitability to carry prescribed goods, over a maximum
        period of 2 years.
        1.2 A person who has been qualified for 3 years or more ceases to be qualified if he or she has not surveyed at least 3 bulk vessels during the past 3 years for suitability to carry  prescribed goods.
        總結一句話就是具有無限航區遠洋船長,在老師傅帶領下檢驗了至少10條船。
        注意:這種資歷只是針對谷物檢驗,認可的檢驗員可以在AIMS網站上查到

        二、氧化鋁跟谷物驗倉的差別
        1.氧化鋁是非法檢,發貨人的檢驗員認可就行。該檢驗員并不需要在AIMS網站備案或者通過各種認證。
        2.谷物是法定檢驗,必須是通過MUS海事檢驗員的認證+AQIS檢驗員的認證。一般都是先通過海事檢驗員的認證,再安排AQIS檢驗員登輪。
        這里要注意,該兩類檢驗員都不一定是只檢驗貨倉,對個相關場所都有權利檢查。
        3.該兩類檢驗員還是各有重點,海事檢驗員以貨倉為主,AQIS檢驗員以全船為主。

        三、對貨艙的要求
        氧化鋁跟谷物對貨倉的要求基本相同。
        GUIDANCE NOTES FOR VESSELS ARRIVING AT AUSTRALIA TO LOAD GRAIN
        Vessels loading grain for export in Australia are subject to stringent regulations under the EXPORT CONTROL ACT 1982, Grain, Plants and Plant Products Orders No. 6 of 1984, which stipulate that:
        1.Vessels loading grain are subject to survey by an approved grain accredited Marine Surveyor and Australian Quarantine and Inspection Service (AQIS) for cleanliness and infestation or the presence of materials which could lead to infestation.
        2.A loading permit will only be issued by the AQIS surveyor after the grain accredited Marine Surveyor has issued a certificate stating that the holds of the ship are fit for the carriage of grain.
        The Masters of vessels intending to load grain in Australia for export should ensure that, prior to the time of inspection:
        • Details of the vessels particulars, the last three previous cargoes and the last grain cargo are available.
        • All spaces to be loaded with grain are thoroughly clean and dry, free of odour, gas or fumes, free from previous cargo residues, insects, rust scale and flaking paint. Particular attention should be paid to areas likely to trap previous cargo residues, scale and dirt such as hatch covers, coaming ledges, deck beams, frame knees, brackets, horizontal surfaces, pipe brackets, pipe flanges
        • Bilges are clean, dry, odourless and in working condition. Bilge plate perforations should be clear and the bilges, and any scuppers, should be made grain tight with new, clean hessian or similar porous material
        • Spaces adjacent to cargo spaces to be loaded, and store rooms, including those for foodstuffs, are free from insects
        • Any wooden structures such as tank top sheathing are clean, completely dry, free from insects and grain tight. Green timber is not permitted
        • If possible, ballast holds are empty and ready for inspection as outlined at the same time as other holds to avoid a costly second inspection
        • Hatches are fully open
        • An aluminium ladder is in place, available for the inspectors use in the first hold to be inspected (usually hold No. 1). If a second ladder is available, that should be placed in the second hold to be inspected. Drums, brooms, scrapers and dustpans should also be in place. (In the interests of safety, it is not permitted to lower or raise anything into or out of holds whilst inspectors are in the holds. Thus, a good deal time can be saved by having the necessary items in the holds before the inspectors enter).
        At the time of inspection, an officer with a ‘walkie talkie’ radio should accompany inspectors in the holds, and another officer with a radio should be standing by on deck at all times. The ship’s engineers should be on stand by to operate bilges for testing (dry sucking only). Sufficient crew should be available to carry out on the spot cleaning if necessary.
         If the holds are found unfit to load grain, cleaning and/or fumigation may be ordered by the inspectors prior to issuing of a permit to load with subsequent delay and considerable expense.
        Cargo spaces used for the carriage of processed grains such as white rice, malt and hulled oats, bagged rice or other grain cargoes which are highly susceptible to discolouration and taint should have a complete paint coat with no bare metal, rust, rust scale, rust powder or rust staining evident at all. All paint must be applied in sufficient time for it to completely dry and be free of odour in accordance with the paint manufacturer’s instructions well prior to the arrival of the vessel at the load port (usually, with marine coatings, at least seven days is required for the paint to fully ‘cure’).
        The term ‘grain’ includes wheat, barley, rice, oats, canola, maize, peas, sorghum, soya beans, sunflower sees, linseed and rye
        NB The importance of properly preparing cargo spaces to load grain cannot be over stressed. Inspectors will only issue certificates and permits when all cargo spaces are considered fit to be loaded (with the possible exception of holds which have been ballasted). If inspectors consider that further cleaning and/or painting is required, delay and expense are inevitable. Elevated work platforms (‘cherry pickers’), high pressure water washing machines and shore labour will usually be needed and the vessel will probably have to shift to a lay-by berth until the work is completed.
        These notes are issued for the guidance of shipowners and operators only. No guarantee or warranty is given, or liability accepted, with regard to their comprehensiveness or accuracy.
        最主要的不同點應該是對TANK TOP銹蝕的要求吧。
        對谷物來說,硬銹(指的是用鐵錘敲打都敲不下來的)是允許的,對氧化鋁來說是不允許的,氧化鋁要求的是出白。
        當然這里,我們通常說的水銹(TEMPERATURE RUST)表面的一層薄銹,手套擦過,基本干凈的是沒有問題的。

        另外,盡量不要用油漆。
        1. 有可能不能做到干透。有氣味是不允許的。
        2. 干透的油漆又有可能會形成RUST SCALE.用鏟子不能鏟掉為標準。
        淺談澳大利亞對散貨船的驗艙


        四、驗艙的程序

        驗艙的程序在上面的英文里有所描述,下面只提幾個重點:
        1.一般都是先甲板,檢查艙口圍,甲板,艙蓋板,通風口,以及各種可以看到的,或者借助工具可以檢驗的地方,比如:會用高壓空氣去吹:
        2.從No.1艙前面的直梯下,后面的澳梯上,梯子當中的平臺可以觀察高空UNDER DECK AREA,以及梯子的背面等。
        3.艙底的管子背后,FRAME的背后,污水井,人孔, TANK TOP的銹蝕情況等都是重點。
        4.通道,梯子要注意,不要有斷裂或嚴重銹蝕,如果檢驗員覺得不安全,可以拒絕下艙。
        5.各種管子不能破,破洞是不允許的,最嚴重的話,檢驗員可以認為里面有蟲子等外來生物,下令去熏蒸。
        6.用來爬高的梯子應該可以到達FRAME的最下端,最起碼有兩副,用來交替使用,檢驗NO.1 HOLD時,另外的一副應該在下一個艙。
        7.交流。相對來說,我們中國籍的船通不過的比例是比較高的,最主要的原因還是交流。因為語言,習慣,還有生活方式,觀念的認識不一樣吧。比如:我們很多船員習慣了說YES,有時沒有聽懂就說YES.還有我們中國人骨子里的觀念,都是認為可以中庸的,其實,老外習慣了一是一,二是二。
        我的建議,船上應該有2個隊,大副帶水手長等4-5個人 ,跟隨檢驗員,有小的缺陷馬上改正,船長帶木匠等幾個人第二梯隊吧。當然,機艙人員也要加入,比如燒焊等工作,一定要馬上做,只要是人做決定的時候,就會考慮態度。
         
        五、澳洲檢驗公司介紹
        CR COX是澳洲最大的檢驗公司,成立于1950年,共有四十多個檢驗員,在東澳西澳幾個主要港口都有辦公室及取制樣室。
        澳洲氧化鋁出口的百分之九十都是他們在操作,目前針對澳洲氧化鋁及谷物推出海外預檢,就是準備去澳洲裝谷物或者糧食的船舶可以提出在中國,新加坡等地預先申請檢驗,公司根據船舶實際情況提出一些建議,指導船員洗艙,掃倉,提高通過機率。

        作者:Capt.Zang 來源:友航海事

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