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        【事故報告】燃油過濾器中蠟沉淀導致鍋爐爆炸

        時間:2018/4/25 11:18:41 點擊:

          內容提示:隨著排放控制區的施行,全球船舶在執行更嚴格的硫排放限值后,低硫餾燃料的使用對船東的安全意識和船舶操作技術的要求也隨之增加,今天,將帶大家了解一起MAIB事故案例報告,希望對有關方有所啟示。...
        隨著排放控制區的施行,全球船舶在執行更嚴格的硫排放限值后,低硫餾燃料的使用對船東的安全意識和船舶操作技術的要求也隨之增加,今天,將帶大家了解一起MAIB事故案例報告,希望對有關方有所啟示。

        英國海上事故調查局(MAIB)安全公告
        2017年1月19日,英國費利克斯托集裝箱碼頭集裝箱船“曼哈頓橋”輪上輔助鍋爐爆炸,造成一人死亡,一人重傷。

        【事故報告】燃油過濾器中蠟沉淀導致鍋爐爆炸
        圖1:“曼哈頓橋”輪
         

        背景
        2017年1月19日約2304時,日本籍集裝箱船“曼哈頓橋”輪在英國費利克斯托的一個集裝箱碼頭靠泊時,機艙發生輔助鍋爐爆炸。當時,該輪大管輪和加油工正在調查一個鍋爐熄火警報,兩人被爆炸所傷。加油工嚴重受傷,爆炸后不久死亡。大管輪臉部和右臂遭受燒傷,需要皮膚移植。
        日本運輸安全委員會(JTSB)正在對事故的原因和情況進行全面調查,并將根據國際海事組織《事故調查規則》適時公布調查結果。英國海上事故調查局(MAIB)將檢查員派到費利克斯托進行初步事故現場調查。MAIB根據檢查結果發布了此安全公告,旨在提高初始鍋爐熄火相關事項的安全意識。

        事故發生原因
        “曼哈頓橋”輪在事故發生前幾天一直在北海硫氧化物排放控制區(SECA)航行。為符合國際排放標準1,輔助鍋爐燃料曾由重燃料油(HFO)轉為船用輕柴油(MGO)。MGO在鹿特丹裝載,被宣稱符合ISO 8217:2005——“石油產品”—— “燃料(F級)”——“海洋燃料規范”中規定的質量標準。
        在事故發生前的幾個小時內,輔助鍋爐由于熄火或點火失效而多次被中止,大管輪每次都會檢查故障并重啟鍋爐。一次熄火鍋爐中斷后,當大管輪和加油工想重啟鍋爐燃燒裝置時,發生了爆炸。爆炸炸開了鍋爐燃燒裝置入口(如圖2),把燃燒裝置的空氣擴散器炸進了機艙(如圖3)。加油工當時就站在燃燒裝置的正前面,大管輪站在旁邊。
        【事故報告】燃油過濾器中蠟沉淀導致鍋爐爆炸
        圖2:鍋爐和燃燒裝置


        【事故報告】燃油過濾器中蠟沉淀導致鍋爐爆炸

        圖3:空氣擴散器


        初步發現
        事件發生后,燃燒裝置制造商對鍋爐燃料系統進行了檢查,確定了供油過濾器中蠟質沉積物的積聚,足以限制燃油流量(如圖4)。在事故發生時燃燒的MGO樣品由MAIB采集并送到實驗室進行分析。樣品按照最新ISO 8217:2017標準中規定的規格進行測試,包括濁點(CP),冷濾點(CFPP)和傾點(PP)測試。
        試驗發現燃料的CFPP為14℃,PP小于零下9℃,燃料運行溫度最低為15℃。2017年1月19日,費利克斯托的周圍空氣溫度約為4°C,溫度低地足以形成蠟。因為測試樣品的外觀很暗,這是由于在系統管道中殘留的HFO沉積物與MGO的混合造成的,所以燃料的CP無法測出。
        【事故報告】燃油過濾器中蠟沉淀導致鍋爐爆炸
        圖4:燃油管道過濾器中的蠟質沉積

        安全問題
        行業報告顯示,在執行更嚴格的硫排放限值后,較冷水域的鍋爐和船用柴油機性能問題的發生率增加。這是由于在一些低硫餾燃料(MGOs)中發現的石蠟含量有所增加,并隨著燃料溫度下降而形成蠟沉積物或晶體。由于過濾器和管道中的蠟沉積導致的燃料流量受限,可能會導致間歇性和不完全燃燒,從而導致熄火。
        由于原油的區域性組成和煉油工藝的不同,MGO的石蠟含量在全球范圍內有所不同。餾分燃料打蠟過程有三個可測量的階段:這些階段是CP,CFPP和PP。 第一可識別階段CP被定義為蠟晶體在燃料中開始可見地形成,并且此時透明的燃料變得混濁或模糊時的溫度。 CFPP是在規定時間(60秒)內,特定體積的燃料由真空抽動,通過標準過濾器(45微米)仍然繼續流動的最低溫度。PP是冷卻時燃料繼續流動的最低溫度。PP不能暗示任何過濾問題可能發生的溫度。
        在2017年3月之前,ISO 8217標準經常用于航運業,作為預定和測試燃油油艙的標準,ISO 8217關注PP,但不包括CP或CFPP的測試規范。因此,“曼哈頓橋”在鹿特丹裝載的MGO沒有接收過CP或CFPP測試。
         

        安全警示
        船舶經營人在購買低硫MGO時必須仔細考慮航程中將會遇到的周圍空氣和海洋溫度。 同時必須利用這些信息,使用CP和CFPP作為關鍵指標來確定所用燃油所需的冷流特性。
        如果無法操作,則應通過樣品測試建立船上運載的燃料的CP和CFPP。
        當船舶在寒冷的氣候下運行時,燃油管線中發生蠟質殘渣的風險可以通過以下方式控制:
        1. 密切監測低硫MGO艙的視覺外觀,觀察蠟沉淀跡象。
        2. 定期進行燃油濾清器檢查并密切監測燃油系統的壓力。
        3. 將船舶艙室和管道中低硫MGO的溫度保持在CP和CFPP溫度以上,以避免過濾器堵塞的可能性。
        迫不得已時,才能在供應商的嚴格指導下,在儲油罐中向低硫MGO添加冷流改進劑的化學品。
        關于MGO的更多冷流屬性的具體指南請登錄國際內燃機委員會(CIMAC)網址www.cimac.com獲取。

        報告英文原文如下:
        BACKGROUND
        At about 2304 on 19 January 2017, an auxiliary boiler furnace explosion occurred in the engine room on board the Japan registered container ship Manhattan Bridge (Figure 1) as it was berthing alongside a container terminal in Felixstowe, England. Manhattan Bridge’s second engineer and an engine room oiler were investigating a boiler flame failure alarm at the time and were caught by the blast. The oiler suffered severe injuries and died soon after the explosion. The second engineer suffered burn injuries to his face and right arm, which required a skin graft.
        The Japan Transport Safety Board (JTSB) is conducting a full investigation into the causes and circumstances of the accident and, in accordance with the IMO Casualty Investigation Code, will publish its findings in due course. The UK Marine Accident Investigation Branch (MAIB) deployed inspectors to Felixstowe to conduct an initial accident site investigation. Its findings have prompted the MAIB to publish this safety bulletin, which is designed to raise awareness of a safety issue that might be linked to the initial boiler flame failures.
         
        EVENTS LEADING UP TO THE ACCIDENT
        Manhattan Bridge had been operating in the North Sea Sulphur Emission Control Area (SECA) for several days prior to the accident. In order to comply with international emissions control standards1, the auxiliary boiler fuel supply had been switched from heavy fuel oil (HFO) to marine gas oil (MGO). The MGO was loaded at Rotterdam in November 2016 and was declared as meeting the quality standards set out in ISO 8217:2005 – Petroleum products – Fuels (class F) - Specifications of marine fuels. In the hours leading up to the accident, the auxiliary boiler had cut out several times due to flame or ignition failures, and on each occasion, the fault was investigated and the boiler reset by the second engineer.
        The boiler explosion occurred while the second engineer and the oiler were trying to restart the boiler burner unit following a flame failure cut-out. The force of the explosion blew open the boiler burner unit door (Figure 2) and propelled the burner’s air diffuser into the engine room (Figure 3). The oiler was standing directly in front of the burner unit and the second engineer was close by.

        SAFETY ISSUE
        Industry reports indicate an increased incidence of boiler and marine diesel engine performance
        problems in colder waters following the implementation of the more stringent sulphur emissions limit. This has been attributed to the increased paraffin content found in some low sulphur distillate fuels (MGOs) and the subsequent formation of waxy deposits or crystals as the fuel temperature falls. Restricted fuel flow due to wax deposits in filters and pipework can cause intermittent and incomplete combustion to the point of flame failure.
        The paraffin content of MGOs varies globally due to the regional composition of crude oil and variation in refinery processes. There are three measurable stages in the waxing process for distillate fuels; these are CP, CFPP and PP. The first discernible stage, CP, is defined as the temperature at which wax crystals start to visibly form in the fuel and a transparent fuel becomes cloudy or hazy. The CFPP is the lowest temperature where the fuel of a set volume, drawn, by vacuum, through a standardised filter (45 micron) within a specified time (60 sec) still continues to flow. The PP is the lowest temperature at which the fuel will continue to flow when cooled. The PP does not provide any indication of the temperature at which filtration issues may occur.
        Prior to March 2017, the ISO 8217 standard, often used by the shipping industry as the baseline specification when ordering and testing fuel oil bunkers, focused on PP and did not include test specifications for CP or CFPP. As a consequence, the MGO loaded on board Manhattan Bridge in Rotterdam was not subject to CP or CFPP testing.

        SAFETY LESSONS
        It is essential that vessel operators carefully consider anticipated ambient air and sea temperatures that will be experienced during the voyage when purchasing low sulphur MGO bunkers. Such information should be used to identify the required cold flow characteristics of the fuel being supplied using CP and CFPP as key metrics. When this is impractical, it is important to establish the CP and CFPP of the fuels carried on board through sample testing.
        When operating in cold climates, the risk of waxy residue developing in the vessel’s fuel lines can be controlled by:
        1.Closely monitoring the visual appearance of low sulphur MGO bunkers for signs of wax precipitation.
        2.Conducting regular fuel filter inspections and close monitoring of fuel system pressures.
        3.Maintaining the temperature of the low sulphur MGO in the vessel’s tanks and pipework above the CP and CFPP temperatures to avoid the possibility of filter blocking.
        The addition of cold-flow improver chemicals to the low sulphur MGO in the vessel’s storage tanks should only be considered as a last resort under the strict guidance of an additive supplier.
        More detailed guidance2 on the cold flow properties of MGOs can be found on the International Council on Combustion Engines (CIMAC) website: www.cimac.com.

        作者:不詳 來源:TianjinFSC

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