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        AMSA:關于做好救助艇維修保養的通函

        時間:2017/11/27 14:56:22 點擊:

          內容提示:AMSA以及PSCOs表示他們發現越來越多的海員不熟悉救助艇(尤其是外掛艇機)操作以及如何對其進行維修保養的情況發生。而由于這樣的不熟悉在遇到真正的救助行動時極有可能帶來災難性的后果。...
        近日澳大利亞海事安全局就船舶救助艇的操作及維修保養發出通告,并提出一些主要問題希望引起各船各船東以及海員的注意。

        AMSA以及PSCOs表示他們發現越來越多的海員不熟悉救助艇(尤其是外掛艇機)操作以及如何對其進行維修保養的情況發生。而由于這樣的不熟悉在遇到真正的救助行動時極有可能帶來災難性的后果。

        AMSA表示,救助艇原本就是用于在緊急情況下救助遇險人員使用。保持救助艇隨時可用狀態是船長們的責任,而所有海員也都有責任知道怎樣正確的操作救助艇。
        AMSA還列舉了多個常發現的問題,希望引起注意:

        一些海員在啟動馬達后忘記添加冷卻水,這將極易導致水泵以及艇機損壞。
        生產商的使用說明書常常現場不可見,也經常有操作人員對艇機的以及其附屬系統型號不了解。
        AMSA還指出一些在PSC檢查過程中出現的各種具體缺陷,比如:
        冷卻水進水口/網被堵住。
        冷卻水管道被沉積鹽分堵住。
        冷卻水監測孔被堵住。
        葉輪出現磨損

        為了解決上述問題,AMSA提出了一些指導性意見:

        SOLAS以及ISM CODE均要求船上海員熟悉救助艇的操作方式以及緊急設備的保養。ISM CODE10.3要求管理公司明晰可能會突然出現失效從而導致危險情況的發生的情況,并要求在安全管理體系(SMS)中提供具體解決方案,以提高此類設備的可靠性。

        SMS體系應確保救助艇和/或舷外馬達的維修保養程序正確有效并被要求列入船舶維修保養計劃之中。生產商的說明書也必須在船上,操作說明書立即可用。

        ****以下是AMSA通函原文****
        MARINE NOTICE 12/2017
        Operation and maintenance of rescue boat outboard motors

        Purpose
        The purpose of this marine notice is to draw to the attention of ship owners, operators, masters, officers, seafarer training organisations and industry organisations the importance of maintaining rescue boats in good working order ready for immediate use. This marine notice highlights operation and maintenance issues that the ship’s crew and operators should be aware of.

        Background
        Australian Maritime Safety Authority (AMSA) Port Sate Control Officers (PSCOs) are increasingly finding that some crew members are unfamiliar with the operation and maintenance of outboard motors.

        A lack of understanding on how outboard motors are operated and maintained could result in poor performance, or total failure, of these motors. This is an unacceptable risk during a rescue operation that could have catastrophic consequences.

        Rescue Boats
        A rescue boat is designed to rescue persons in distress and to marshal survival craft. Masters have the responsibility for ensuring that rescue boats and associated equipment are maintained in good working order at all times.

        Rescue boats may be either of rigid or inflated construction or a combination of both and are fitted with an inboard engine or outboard motor. The most common type of propulsion system used for a rescue boat is a petrol driven outboard motor.

        During recent Port State Control (PSC) inspections, AMSA PSCOs have identified rescue boat outboard motor operational and maintenance issues which are described below.

        Cooling Water

        Outboard motor cooling water circulation is provided by a cooling water pump incorporating a rubber impeller and is confirmed during operation by a jet of water through a tell-tale hole located below the power head.

        Outboard motors are not designed to be operated without cooling water, even for short periods of time, unlike inboard engines which are designed to be capable of operating for not less than 5 min after starting from cold with the lifeboat out of the water (International Life-Saving Appliance (LSA) Code Chapter IV/ 4.4).

        While proper procedures should be followed during routine testing and operation of outboard motors, AMSA PSCOs have observed that some crew operate the motor without any cooling water, which will result in damage of the water pump and possibly result in failure.

        Even testing using an external pressurised water supply has limitations, as these do not demonstrate that the water pump is capable of taking suction and circulating water through the motor.

        An effective operational test is to submerge the motor leg in water to a depth which will cover the inlet ports. When the motor is started, the pump circulates water through the motor and out through the exhaust outlet. The pump condition and circulation is verified by observing the cooling water flow through the water flow indication (tell-tale) hole as indicated in Figure 1. The manufacturer’s advice with respect to flushing of cooling water passages with fresh water after use must always be followed.
        Figure: 1
        AMSA:關于做好救助艇維修保養的通函
        During inspections of outboard motors, AMSA PSCOs have found various defects including:

        blocked cooling water inlet mesh/ports;
        tell-tale holes blocked by salt deposits, broken pieces of rubber or by paint;
        worn out impellers (Figure 2);
        salt water deposits in cooling water passages.
        All these defects could lead to serious engine damage due to overheating.
        Figure: 2
        AMSA:關于做好救助艇維修保養的通函
        Fuel and Oil

        Rescue boats have either 2-stroke or 4-stroke petrol (gasoline) outboard motors (diesel outboard motors are available but not common). Use of improper fuel can damage the engine or result in starting difficulties.

        AMSA PSCOs have found that manufacturer’s operating manuals are not always available and crew are unsure of the type of outboard motor fitted and its associated systems. 4-stroke motors require no mixing of oil and fuel. Some 2-stroke designs use oil injection systems, while others require pre-mixing of oil and fuel.

        Fuel problems are the most common cause for an engine failing to start. Generally, the fuel is either too old, contaminated, not the correct mix, or may not be able to be ignited due to the spark plugs being fouled by oily residue.

        Sufficient fuel (for maintaining a speed of at least 6 knots for a period of at least 4 hrs) must be carried on-board and stored in approved containers. Fuel systems are to be approved and fitted tanks are to be specially protected against fire & explosion. (LSA Code Chapter V/ 5.1.1.8).

        Best practice guidance

        Safety of Life At Sea (SOLAS) and the International Safety management (ISM) Code require that ships crews are properly familiarised with the operation and maintenance of emergency equipment, including rescue boat outboard motors. The ISM Code, under element 10.3, requires that companies identify equipment the sudden operational failure of which may result in a hazardous situation. Specific measures should be provided in the Safety Management System (SMS) to promote the reliability of such equipment.

        The ship’s SMS should ensure that effective maintenance procedures for rescue boat inboard and/or outboard motors are developed and included in the ship’s planned maintenance system. Manufacturers instruction manuals must also be available on-board, as should a fully inventory of the manufacturer recommended spares, such as fuel and oil filters, spark-plugs and water pump impeller.

        Gary Prosser
        Deputy Chief Executive Officer
        Australian Maritime Safety Authority
        October 2017

        GPO Box 2181
        CANBERRA ACT 2601


        File no: 2017/1830

         

        作者:中文部分CAPTAIN-X 來源:信德海事&AMSA

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