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        關于硝酸銨、硝酸基化肥的載運注意事項

        時間:2017/11/6 14:05:16 點擊:

          內容提示:當船舶裝運硝酸銨、硝酸基化肥時可以參考本文給予船長必要的提醒:包括裝貨前、裝貨中、及運輸途中和卸貨等的注意事項。此外本文引用了IMO發布CCC.1/Circ.4-載運硝酸銨基化肥(無危險的)通函...

        該類化肥分為A類、B類、C類,其中C類為無危險性,而另外兩類則具有很強的危險性,在5.1類---氧化物質,聯合國編碼為:2067至2072,其貨物性質為:全部或部分溶解入水,有助燃性,熔點為160℃左右,當溫度達到210℃時開始分解,釋放出CO后于空氣接觸生成CO2并冒黃煙,同時散發出毒氣及助燃氣體,當貨物受到油類污染時或在密閉的艙室里會發生爆炸危險。 
        1.裝貨前的注意事項: 
          1)認真學習《國際危規》中有關規定,并嚴格執行。
          2)貨艙要做到清潔、干燥無任何雜物,只許使用非易燃品做防護材料及少量的木板隔墊機艙或日用油柜,以防止燃油加熱使貨物遇高溫分解發生危險。
          3)貨艙溫度不超過40℃。
          4)貨艙下面的油艙人孔蓋及有關管系保證沒有任何滲漏。
          5)所有通向貨艙的供電線路都應從貨艙外切斷電源。禁止電焊、燒割及其他明火作業。 
        2.裝貨時注意事項:
          1)裝貨時禁止在甲板上或貨艙里吸煙,并懸掛禁煙告示牌。
          2)在貨艙及其附近禁止電氣焊等明火作業。
          3)一旦失火不用蒸汽或惰性氣體救火,必須用大量的水來滅火,故必須備好消防水,救火時應戴有自供式呼吸器,在整個運輸過程中,甲板上準備數根皮龍并接在消防拴上,檢查好消防泵,保證能迅速投入滅火使用。
          4)由于滅火時需要大量水,應考慮到船舶的穩性。
        3. 航行途中注意事項
          1)注意與貨艙相鄰的油柜,加熱時應慢慢加溫,防止貨艙急劇升溫。
          2)保持所有瀉水孔暢通,裝貨后用封艙膠帶將貨艙密封,防止雨濕。
          3)中途禁止駁卸和加裝燃油。
        4.卸貨注意事項與裝貨一樣,如發現問題要對貨物拍照,并將情況記入航海日志,及時向公司報告。 
        ----------------
        此外,下文引用:IMO發布CCC.1/Circ.4-載運硝酸銨基化肥(無危險的)通函

        對于載運硝酸銨基化肥(無危險的)的提醒注意

        通函正文(中文版):
        1. 2017年9月11日-15日,CCC分委會在其第4次會議上審議了關于載運硝酸銨基化肥(無危 險的)的相關事項。
        2. 在《國際海運固體散裝貨物規則》(IMSBC規則)中,硝酸銨基化肥(無危險的)被劃 分為C組貨物。關于這一點,分委會注意到“MV紫色海灘(2015)”和“MV柴郡(英國一郡名) (2017)”事故與載運硝酸銨基化肥(無危險的)之間的關系。分委會同時注意到事故的調查 報告還處于等待期間,為了確保安全載運需要進一步檢查該貨物的特性,并對其相關風險進 行提醒。
        3.根據歐洲化肥組織發布的硝酸銨基化肥海上運輸指南,該貨物的安全載運原則如下:
         .1  避免硝酸銨基化肥與易燃物質進行相鄰儲存;
         .2  避免硝酸銨基化肥與不相容物質進行相鄰儲存;
         .3  避免之前載運的貨物殘留物對硝酸銨基化肥造成污染;
         .4  避免硝酸銨基化肥的殘留物對后續載運的貨物造成污染;
         .5  避免熱源對硝酸銨基化肥產生影響;和
         .6  避免對含有的硝酸銨基化肥的受限空間進行動火(如焊接)。
        4.雖然硝酸銨基化肥(無危險的)被歸類為C組貨物,但現行IMSBC規則附錄1明細表對其 所列的相關措施應謹慎使用。某些化肥類貨物雖然已通過規定的試驗,但其仍具有潛在的分 解特性。
        5.上述事故產生了大量的氣體云,足以包圍整艘船舶,且覆蓋了船舶周圍的海域。散發的 蒸氣具有很強的毒性。這些條件可能會影響船舶安全撤離,并且阻礙救援和消防。在該類事 件中,貨物分解可能持續許多天,貨艙內的溫度可能超過500℃。
        6.對于船員最好的防護是認識到貨物的分解過程可以在早期被發現。整個航程的貨物定期 監測,對于探測早期分解是至關重要的。
        7.當被強烈加熱時,貨物可能分解并釋放有毒氣體。貨艙艙口蓋的及時打開能預防壓力積 聚,并幫助冷卻貨物,阻止貨物分解的發展。
        8. 如果該貨物發生分解或火災:
         .1  提供最大量的通風,以驅除由于分解造成的氣體。這些氣體可能包括有毒氨氣、氮氧化物和硫氧化物;
         .2  必要時穿戴防護服和自給式呼吸器;
         .3  當使用噴射管傳輸水至熱點時,水的使用是最有效的。使用水霧可能不足以控制分 解;
         .4  可考慮貨艙淹水,并兼顧考慮船舶穩性和結構強度;和
         .5  船舶的氣體消防裝置將會失效。
        9.考慮到相關IMO文件的規定和有關處理及散裝運輸硝酸銨基化肥(無危險的)的上述信 息,提請各成員國使托運人、碼頭經營人、船東、船舶經營人、租船人、船長和所有其他相 關方注意到上述信息,并要求引起重視和采取適當的行動。
           
        通函正文(英文版):
        CCC.1/Circ.4
        22 September 2017

        CARRIAGE OF AMMONIUM NITRATE BASED FERTILIZER (non-hazardous)

        1  The Sub-Committee on Carriage of Cargoes and Containers (CCC), at its fourth session (11 to 15 September 2017), considered matters related to the carriage of AMMONIUM NITRATE BASED FERTILIZER (non-hazardous).

        2  AMMONIUM NITRATE BASED FERTILIZER (non-hazardous) is described as a Group C cargo in the International Maritime Solid Bulk Cargoes (IMSBC) Code. In this connection, the Sub-Committee noted the accidents involving the MV Purple Beach (2015) and MV Cheshire (2017) and the carriage of AMMONIUM NITRATE BASED FERTILIZER (non-hazardous). The Sub-Committee also noted that the accident investigation reports were pending and the need for further examination of the properties of this cargo was raised in order to ensure its safe carriage and to address awareness of the risks.

        3  According to the Guidance for sea transport of AMMONIUM NITRATE BASED FERTILIZERS by the Organization Fertilizers Europe*, the safety principles for this cargo are as follows:
         .1  avoidance of storage of combustible substances near fertilizers;
         .2  avoidance of storage of incompatible substances near fertilizers;
         .3  avoidance of cross contamination with remains of previous cargoes;
         .4  avoidance of cross contamination of next cargo with fertilizer;
         .5  avoidance of sources of heat likely to affect the fertilizer; and
         .6  avoidance of application of heat (e.g. welding) to any section which may have trapped/confined fertilizer.

        4  The measures listed in the individual schedule for AMMONIUM NITRATE BASED FERTILIZER (non-hazardous) in appendix 1 of the current IMSBC Code should be applied carefully even though it is classified as Group C. Some fertilizers which have passed the prescribed tests have shown the potential to still undergo decomposition.
         
        5  The gas clouds produced during the aforementioned accidents were large enough to envelop the ship, and cover the sea area surrounding the ship. The vapour emitted was highly toxic. Such conditions could affect the safe abandonment of the ship and hinder rescue and firefighting efforts. In such events, cargo decomposition may last for multiple days and the temperatures in cargo holds may reach in excess of 500oC.

        6  The best protection for seafarers is awareness of the decomposition process to allow it to be identified at an early stage. Regular monitoring of the cargo throughout the voyage is crucial to detect beginning of decomposition.

        7  When heated strongly, this cargo may decompose and release toxic gases. Timely opening of cargo hatches can prevent the build-up of pressure and help cool the cargo, impeding the development of cargo decomposition.

        8  In case of decomposition or fire involving this cargo:
         .1  provide maximum ventilation to remove the gases resulting from decomposition. These gases may include toxic fumes of ammonia and oxides of nitrogen and sulphur;
         .2  wear, as necessary, protective clothing and self-contained breathing apparatus;
         .3  application of water is most effective where injection pipes are used to deliver water to hot spots. Water spraying may not be sufficient to control the decomposition;
         .4  flooding of the cargo space may be considered, giving due consideration to the ship's stability and structural strength; and
         .5  the ship's gas firefighting installation will be ineffective.

        9  Member States are invited to bring the above information to the attention of shippers, terminal operators, shipowners, ship operators, charterers, shipmasters and all other entities concerned, requesting that extreme care and appropriate action be taken, taking into account the provisions of relevant IMO instruments and the information above when handling and carrying AMMONIUM NITRATE BASED FERTILIZER (non-hazardous) in bulk.

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